Schizopphrenia is nothing but chronic, and sometimes severe mental disorder that affects how a person thinks, feels and behaves. Statistically, this disease affects less than one percent of the population. Scientists believe that the cause of this disease is imbalances in complex and interconnected brain chemical reactions involving neurotransmitters, that is, substances that brain cells use to communicate with each other. Schizopnorenia can occur in different forms and does not always mean multiples of personality or splitting it. When it is in advanced condition it can cause problems with concentration, thinking, lack of motivation and there may be symptoms including delusions, attacks of aggression or even reverse withdrawal, closure in itself. For the most part, people struggling with this affliction are not aggressive or threaten society, they have normal families and work. Source
Recent research shows that CBD use significantly improves the medical condition of schizoptorena sufferers. The use of cannabinoidow also reduced the number of psychotic symptoms and had a beneficial effect on cognitive function.
The first description of the case of using CBD as an antipsychotic drug was published by Zuardi and his colleagues (table below). The study involved a 19-year-old schizophrenia patient who was treated with CBD up to 1,500 mg per day for 4 weeks, resulting in an improvement in acute psychotic symptoms.
The results of a 2006 study that assessed the effects of CBD as monotherapy (single drug therapy) to treatment-resistant schizophrenia in 3 people show that CBD administration (at flexible doses up to 1280 mg/d) and 6 people (600 mg/d dose) showed improvements in psychotic symptoms within 4 weeks.
Since then, CBD antipsychotic properties have been assessed in
three mixed results clinical trials (table below).
In 2012, Dr. Leweke and colleagues published the first randomized – a controlled double-blind clinical trial on the therapeutic effects of CBD. The study was subjected to 42 people who were given a dose of 600-800 mg / day for 4 weeks , compared to amisulprid used for acute psychosis in people with schizophrenia. The study found that CBD is just as effective as amisulprid in the treatment of psychotic symptoms and has minimal side effects, including less additional pyramidal symptoms and weight gain.
((Blind test method- means the concealment of the drug name in front of patients, physicians treating patients and carrying out medical records,
on the basis of which effectiveness is assessed, etc. or persons assessing the correctness /completeness of the documentation provided ' on how many categories of such persons do not know what medicine is used depends on the adverb used individually)
The effects of CBD on psychosis have recently been studied in two randomised double-blind clinical trials, a placebo comparative study (this is a study assessing the safety of use and efficacy in this case of CBD). McGuire and colleagues used CBD as an aidive drug to treat acute psychosis in people suffering from schizophrenia or other non-affective psychotic disorders. The study involved 88 people who received either CBD 1000 mg per day (in two divided doses) or placebo in addition to routine antipsychotics (continuing unchanged during the study) for 6 weeks.
In a similar study, Boggs and colleagues reviewed the therapeutic effects of supporting CBD at a dose of 600 mg per day (in two divided doses) compared to placebo over a 6-week, randomised clinical study with a double blind placebo comparative study in people with chronic schizophrenia (36 people studied). Cbd has not been found to have an interaction in cognitive outings or psychotic symptoms. The CBD receiving group showed a higher sedation compared to the placebo group.
|Test||Attempt||CBD Dosage||Symptom assessment method||Determine|
|Zuardi et al.||1||up to 1500 mg/
for 26 days
|BPRS||Symptom limitation, no side effects|
|Zuradi et al.||3||up to 1280 mg/da
yfor 28 days
|BPRS||Slight limitation of symptoms in one case, no side effects|
|Zuardi et al.||6||up to 600 mg/da
yfor 28 days
|Symptom limitation, no side effects|
|Leweke et al.||42||up to 800 mg/tod
ay in 3-4 dose
s for 28 days
|CBD was effective as amisuplryd (multifunctional organic chemical compound with atypical neuroleptics properties) as a symptom limiter, CBD had a smaller range of side effects|
|McGuiare et al.||88||1000 mg/da
or 42 days
|The CBD group had more limited symptoms, and a higher proportion of patients were assessed as a year-long improvement and their condition was assessed as milder by their doctors. Patients also showed improvements in cognitive skills and overall functioning. Adverse events were no different from the placebo group.|
|Boggs et al.||36||600 mg/da
y2 doses f
or 42 days
|Cbd has not been found to have an interaction in cognitive outings or psychotic symptoms. The CBD receiving group showed a higher sedation compared to the placebo group.|
- BPRS – Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale – Short Scale of Psychiatric Assessment,
- PPQ – Parkinson Psychosis Questionnaire – Kwestionariusz Psychozy
Parkinson 's disease,
- PANSS – Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale – Skala
Positive I Negativesyndromes,
- BACS – Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia – Assessment of Poznań in Schizophrenia,
- GAF – Global Assesment of functioning scale – Global Scale of Performance Assessment,
- CGI-I / CGI-S – Improvement and severity scales of the Clinical Global Impressions Scale,
- MCCB – MaTRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery
|IMPORTANCE FOR PSYCHIATRISTS|
Natural marijuana contains several different compounds, most of them like CBD, CBDA, CBG have a therapeutic effect on psychosis, while THC in high concentrations can exacerbate psychotic symptoms.
A summary of the
Compared to the placebo group, the CBD group observed a greater improvement in positive psychotic symptoms during treatment. The average improvement in the positive effect of PANSS was 3.2 (SD 2.60) in the CBD group compared with 1.7 (SD 2.76) in the placebo group. In addition, the CBD group was rated as "revised" on CGI-I compared to the placebo group (78.6% and 54.6% respectively). Patients who received CBD therefore showed improvements in cognitive function levels at trend level and a significant improvement in motor speed compared to the control group.
Mechanism of action
To this day, the mechanism of action of potential CBD antipsychotic properties is still unknown, but the effects of applications are still underestimated. Unlike other antipsychotics, CBD does not significantly affect dopaminergic neurons, and unlike THC, it does not bind to cannabinoid receptors. However, CBD increases anandamide levels in CSF, one of the main endocannabinoid ligands, blocking its degrading enzyme, aamide hydrolysis of fatty acids or competing with intracellular anandamide transporters. Anandamide levels in psychotic patients treated with CBD are associated with clinical improvement. This may suggest that CBD contributes to the mitigation of psychosis by increasing endogenous levels of anandamide. However, further research is needed to confirm this.
The current pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia is only partially effective and mainly for positive symptoms. This prompted researchers to investigate new pharmacological measures, and the endocannabinoid system was one of the latest. However, current research into the potential therapeutic effects of CBD is not conclusive and the mechanism of action is poorly understood. Discrepancies in clinical performance may be associated with different doses of CBD, stages of psychosis or perhaps heterogeneity of schizophrenia itself.